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This term refers to midsternal, anterior chest pain due to a partially blocked Coronary Artery. It is often felt as a chest pressure like an elephant sitting on ones’ chest, spreading to the inner aspect of the upper arm, neck and upper mid back. It can last anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes or more.


Systolic blood pressure persistently over 140mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure repeatedly over 90mmHg constitute hypertension. Theoretically, hypertension could result from an increased in cardiac output or in total peripheral resistance (caused by abnormally reduced arteriolar radius), or both. There are two types of hypertension: essential with no known cause and secondary resulting from an identifiable disease or condition.


Cholesterol is a major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease. A high level of cholesterol is referred to as hyperlipidaemia. Cholesterol is made up of HDLs- the protective cholesterol because it transports lipids out of the arterial wall; LDL’s are referred to as the bad cholesterol; and triglycerides which appear to increase the risk factors further when LDL count is high. A normal cholesterol level is lower than 5.5mmol/L but in patients with known Coronary Artery Disease their cholesterol should be less than 4mmol/L.

Heart Failure

The heart produces inadequate cardiac output and blood pressure to sustain the body’s requirements. Left ventricular failure and right ventricular failure may occur independently, or together as congestive cardiac failure.

Arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats)

An arrhythmia in an abnormal heart rate or rhythm. Normal cardiac rhythm originates from impulses generated within the sinus node, hence normal heart rhythm is called a sinus rhythm. When electrical activation of the heart begins in places other than that controlling the sinus rhythm it is known as a cardiac arrhythmia, an arrhythmia can be fast, slow or an irregular beating of the heart.


Abnormal heart sound. Murmurs appear to result from vibrations caused by turbulent blood flow.